The science is the set of techniques and models to organize knowledge about a structure of objective facts. The policy, meanwhile, is an ideological activity to the decision of a group to achieve objectives and the exercise of the power to resolve conflicts.
On the other hand, it is possible to distinguish between the formal sciences (without concrete content, such as mathematics), the natural sciences (they study nature, such as geology) and the social sciences (they are in charge of analyzing the phenomena of culture and society, like history).
That said, we can affirm that political science is a social science that is dedicated to the study of political activity as a universal and necessary phenomenon. Political science is also responsible for developing the theory of the State, the main form of social organization.
It is important to note that politics has always existed, so reflections on its scope date back to ancient times. However, there are those who place the birth of political science in the 16th century, with the work of Nicolás Machiavelli.
Nicolás Machiavelli was a Florentine philosopher and politician who not only became a fundamental figure in the Renaissance but also a key figure in the field of politics. And all thanks to a work he made in 1513 under the title “The Prince.”
That is a well-known work in our days and a reference in many cases that its author wrote while he was imprisoned for having been accused of having carried out a conspiracy against the Medicci family. Specifically, due to this book the Machiavellian term arose that currently has a negative meaning and that is that among the questions that it raised are established that any prince, leader, must carry out all the actions that he considers, whatever the type. and cause the damage they cause, since “the end justifies the means.”
Hence, even Nicholas Machiavelli establishes in this work that the prince must be authoritarian or that he must be feared by the population. Not forgetting that he also advises every ruler on issues such as avoiding being hated, not increasing taxes and never “touching” either the property or the wives of his subjects. In this way, he will be able to stay on his throne.
However, we cannot ignore the existence of another series of authors who also left their important mark on political science. This would be the case of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbe, who strongly defended political absolutism, or the Swiss Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who developed nationalist and republican theories.
As for the modern notion of political science, it arises from the nineteenth century, when liberal revolutions and industrial development led to great social changes that were analyzed by various thinkers.
According to abbreviationfinder, political science is currently in charge of analyzing the exercise of political power, state activities, public administration and management, political systems, the party regime and election processes, among many other issues.