The science fiction is a genre whose contents are based on assumptions scientific or technical achievements that could be achieved in the future. This scientific support makes science fiction different from the fantasy genre, where situations and characters are the fruit of imagination.
The science fiction genre has also been known as anticipation literature, given the aforementioned characteristics. In fact, many science fiction authors have managed to anticipate the emergence of different inventions, such as Jules Verne with submarines or spaceships.
According to DigoPaul, science fiction was born as a literary subgenre in the 1920’s. Over time, it expanded to different formats. Film science fiction has been one of the most successful adaptations, especially since the second half of the 20th century.
Specifically, in the 20th century it is interesting to highlight the appearance of a series of movements or trends within the science fiction genre that have become authentic references. Thus, in the first place, we find cyberpunk, which was the movement that emerged in the 1980’s and that occurred as a result of the development and expansion of computers, which led science fiction authors to exploit that possibility of computers dominating humans.
Among the most significant films that became perfect examples of the aforementioned cyberpunk is the film entitled “Blade Runner”, which was released in 1982 by director Ridley Scott and is based on a 1968 novel called “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep ? ” and written by Philip K. Dick. A true classic of the science fiction genre is this North American production as is another also included within the aforementioned movement. In particular we are referring to “Terminator” (1984) which is directed by James Cameron, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger and which had three more episodes.
While cyberpunk established a negative and apocalyptic view of the presence of computers in our society, postcyberpunk, which appeared in the 1990’s, was much more optimistic in this regard. Hence, scientists and researchers who want to make use of technology for the benefit of society are taken as protagonists in the stories of this movement. A perfect example of this kind of science fiction is the series “Otherland” by Tad Williams.
Some people distinguish between hard science fiction and science fiction soft, according to the rigor with which scientific data are treated. Hard science fiction would be “the most scientific”, without much room for imagination. Instead, bland science fiction includes some assumptions with no scientific or real basis.
Among the most famous authors of science fiction, one can name Isaac Asimov (1920 – 1992, author of “I robot”), Ray Bradbury (1920, “Martian Chronicles”, “Fahrenheit 451”), Arthur C. Clarke (1917 – 2008, “Space Odyssey”), Aldous Huxley (1894 – 1963, “Brave New World”), Ursula K. Le Guin (1929, “The Dispossessed”) and the aforementionedJules Verne (1828 – 1905, “Journey to the center of the Earth”, “Twenty thousand leagues of submarine journey”).